How to Build - A Next-Gen Game Carby Valentin Nadolu
The vehicle in this tutorial will have the following textures:
Window: 256x256 with alpha
The entire UV process will be done using a checkered texture applied to the object as a color map. This is done to make sure all the UVs are proportional to each other and if each individual UV shell is aligned properly and make sure there are no distortions.
The main tool used for making organic UVs in Maya is Polygon->Unfold. Here are the basics on working with Unfold in four easy steps:
The Window UV
The following images contain one of the most common problems an artist faces when doing UVs using Unfold and some methods of minimizing or eliminating this problem.
- Start off by applying a simple UV modifier on the entire geometry, something quick and simple like CreateUVs->Planar Mapping. Settings are not important, the goal being to obtain only one UV shell for each geometry piece.
- Using Polygon->Cut UV Edges (in the UV Texture Editor menu) cut the UV shell into more shells to avoid UV overlapping.
- Apply Unfold to each UV shell one by one. The basic settings can be observed in the next image. Note that I ticked the „rescale” option to make sure the UVs will have the same scale. The results should cause as little distortion as possible when the object is viewed in 3d with the checkered applied.
- Each UV shell has an attribute called winding order. This defines the order in which the UVs are displayed, either in a clock-wise or counter-clock-wise manner. To view this attribute, use this button in the UV Editor:
Once the button is pressed, each shell will be colored different according to the winding order. Some shells will be blue (normal winding order), some will be red (flipped UVs). This display mode is additive, so overlapping UVs will have a more pronounced color, making them easier to spot. As this winding order has a big impact on how the normal map is generated, keeping all UV shells blue will help a lot when baking this map. This feature has been introduced in Maya 8.5 along with a couple of other improvements that make baking and using normal maps a lot easier than before.
- After all the UVs shells are correct, the next step is to scale and arrange them in the 0-1 UV space. The way they are arranged has to be as compact as possible to minimize the unused texture space. I start the compacting with the biggest shells and arrange them starting from one corner of the 0-1 space.
As I mentioned earlier, the first step is applying Planar Mapping on the geometry. If the resulted UV doesn’t have the same symmetry axis as the mesh itself, there are chances the unfolded UVs will look incorrect, like this:
One solution is to start the UV process by using a more suitable way to do the initial UV. By applying Planar Mapping from the top view, the UV will have the same symmetry axis as the geometry. After Unfold, the result will probably be better, like in the following images:
This type of error caused by Unfold can be corrected by cutting the UV shell along its symmetry axis, applying Unfold to each resulting half and then recombining the two shells by using Move and Sew.
The Wheel UV
The easiest and most logical way to do the UVs for the tire thread is to use Cylindrical Mapping. To save texture space, the thread UV was cut in half and overlapped. I could have used the entire width of the 0-1 space to make the tire texture tileable, but in this case it is more important to keep the sides of the tire and the thread at the same resolution so I overlapped them instead. I did the same for the interior of the rim; only the UV is cut in four pieces and overlapped as that area is not visible too much in the scene. Same goes for the inner part of the brake disc which was overlapped with the exterior to save texture space.
Interior and Exterior UV's
The next images show the way the interior (1st image) and exterior (2nd image) UVs are laid. Some things are worth mentioning:
deals with generating normal maps and ambient occlusion maps.
- Most of the shells are overlapped to save texture space. Do this as often as possible, especially for areas that do not contain asymmetrical details, such as text decals.
- Some of the shells are not overlapped as they will require unique detail on the texture. For example, the front of the vehicle is not mirrored to allow the addition of a logo in the texture.
- Parts that are less visible on the car, like the underside, use less space on the UV, as they do not require too much detail on the texture.
- Even thought the rear of the car will be the one most visible while playing the game, the seam resulted from the mirroring of UVs is small.
- I recommend that the UVs to be cut on hard edges, because any seams that will appear there in the texture will be easier to hide because of the sharp transition in lightning between the faces.